Brachial plexus is a network of nerves that runs from your spine to your shoulders, supplying your upper extremities (fingers, hands, forearms and shoulders) with the nervous energy it needs to control muscle and movement. When this network of nerves is twisted, bruised, ruptured, ripped, or avulsed, brachial plexus injury can occur. Brachial plexus injury may obstruct the supply of nervous system to the upper extremities, making it difficult, sometimes even impossible, for someone to control his arm movement.

There are many possible causes of brachial plexus injury. Injuries from contact sports, such as basketball and football, may result in brachial plexus injury. Motorcycle and other road-related incidents may also cause this condition. In instances when a portion of the brachial plexus is damaged during labor, a type of brachial plexus injury called Erb’s palsy may occur.

Erb’s palsy is characterized by complete or partial paralysis of the biceps and the lower arm. Babies with Erb’s palsy may also have a shoulder that is “hanging” and is rotated forward. The affected wrist may also be twisted inwards, and muscle weakness is noticeable.

According to the website of the Resmini Law Offices, Erb’s palsy can primarily be a result of medical negligence. A medical staff that is reckless or untrained may “pull” the baby harshly during labor, lugging the baby’s head away from its shoulder and causing brachial plexus damage. Wrong instrumentation during assisted delivery may also increase the risk of Erb’s palsy. Other factors associated with Erb’s palsy include mother’s small pelvic size, baby’s large size, heavy birth weight, and breech position.

Children with untreated Erb’s palsy may have an affected arm that’s smaller in girth and in length, and may also suffer from muscle atrophy (weakness). As such, it is important that Erb’s palsy is treated, either with surgery, with physical therapy, or both, to prevent these life-long complications.


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Just as with every state in the US, California has laws that are used to punish people who have been found guilty of domestic and/or spousal abuse, domestic violence, corporal injury, and/or battery. The charges can either be a misdemeanor or a felony charge, depending on the details of each case. Because of the complexity that domestic violence and abuse cause, victims are often not given the option to “drop the charges” against the abuser once the charges has been filed and the investigation has begun. It is very common for prosecutors to seek the maximum penalties towards those charged, regardless of whether the victim retracts their statements or allegations.

According to the website of Williams Kherkher, a domestic violence charge is often filed when a loud argument leads to a physical alteration. When the police are called (either by the victim or anyone who heard the attack), they will be taking official statements from the alleged victim and if there are injuries that are identified by police, they will be photographed for evidence. Even the smallest of injuries are enough for the police to press charges and it can be difficult to dismiss a domestic violence case (also known as Penal Code 273.5 PC) once they have begun acquiring evidence.

Because the penalties for a domestic violation can be harsh and severe, many lawyers have various defenses to prevent such penalties. Accidental injuries, self defense, and even false claims are often used as defense from domestic violence charges, which is why it is important to find the right lawyers who not only understands the specifics of your case, but also knowledgeable and experience in handling domestic violence cases. Damages from domestic violence are not only physical, but also emotional and psychological.


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On April 30, 2014, Johnson & Johnson’s power morcellator manufacturing unit Ethicon withdrew from the market its Gynecare Morcellex Tissue Morcellator, Morcellex Sigma Tissue Morcellator System, and Gynecare X-Tract Tissue Morcellator, suspended the sales and promotion of these devices and asked hospitals (with that use these devices) to return these. Ethicon’s move is in response to the FDA’s safety alert that discourages further use of power morcellators in surgical procedures that removed either the uterus or uterine fibroids.

Based on studies reported in medical literatures, power morcellators have been found to cause the spread of undetected uterine sarcoma (a cancerous tissue) beyond the uterus. As there is no available device capable of accurately detecting the presence of uterine sarcoma, a power morcellator can cause it spread during a surgical removal of uterine fibroids or myomas (which are benign tumors growing in the uterus).

Power morcellators began to be introduced in the 1990s, improving the way of performing hysterectomy, the surgical procedure for removing the female’s womb or uterus. This power device, which is capable of mincing large masses of tissues, to allow these to pass through abdominal incisions as small as 0.5-1cm, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to be used in laparoscopic surgeries (which are minimally-invasive surgical procedures), specifically in hysterectomy and myomectomy (which removes uterine fibroids).

The use of power morcellators in laparoscopic surgeries eventually gained popularity as their use offered benefits that were lacking in traditional hysterectomy procedures, such as abdominal hysterectomy. While abdominal hysterectomy required incisions in the abdomen that were 5 – 7 inches long, minimally invasive surgeries only needed four 0.5-1cm cuts, making the wounds heal faster, reducing possibilities of infection or complications, lessening the amount of blood loss, reducing pain, and requiring shorter recovery period or hospital confinement.

The FDA, however, see cancer development in women an unacceptable consequence of the use of the device. And while debates on whether to totally ban the use of power morcellators continue to be held, a number of lawsuits have already been filed by women diagnosed with leiomyosarcoma, the type of cancer resulting from morcellation treatment.

Women who have been treated with a power morcellator in the past will find the articles on the website of the National Injury Law Center at www.legalhelp247.com/practice-areas/morcellators/ very informative and interesting. The articles actually talk about women’s legal rights and options after having been diagnosed with cancer after undergoing laparoscopic surgery; it also explains the necessity of being represented by a highly competent lawyer in a civil litigation.


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Moral relativism and realism have been the subjects of many philosophical theses and dissertations in the past. The discussions about these issues go beyond culture, race or religion, as these are interests of many individuals worldwide. Moral relativism states that morality is but a fabrication of individual minds and certain societies and teaches that moral values are subjective, that is, what may be moral for one is not necessarily moral for the other; moral realism, on the other hand, points to the existence of objective moral values – these are concepts of good and evil that are never confined in individuals and societies.

Objective morality can be directly known and verified by anyone, like knowing with certainty that a physical object is real. This is obvious through the beliefs and practices of Christians, pagans, and atheists from olden times to the present. The fact that many individuals have sacrificed their lives for the sake others, have chosen to perform virtuous acts, such as charity, kindness and truthfulness, have taught their children to love and share with the needy and not to kill or act unjustly, have felt extreme guilt over acts like abortion, neglect of children or cheating his/her spouse or being the cause of a broken family, and have punished those who have committed murder, rape, fraud, theft and so many other crimes – only prove that there is an objective morality which we all observe and adhere to. Doing all those mentioned above, yet still insisting that there is moral relativism, what would be the reason for such acts then? Personal preference because such acts cause greater happiness, contentment and freedom? Furthermore, if moral relativism were true, then what right does anyone have to bring others to justice to punish them for a wrong they have done when, in the first place, there will no longer be any right or wrong act or good or evil for that matter? Who would dare say then that “Murder is evil.” or “Almsgiving is good?” Without absolute morality, the words good and evil will have no meaning at all.

For more information, click here.


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Don’t Sweat It with miraDry

Sweat is a necessary part of the human body’s regulatory system; without it, the body temperature would reach dangerous levels, resulting in heat cramps or heat stroke. However, when you sweat too much, it can be embarrassing and cause social, emotional and psychological problems. This condition, called hyperhidrosis, can occur in selected areas or the entire body and one can acquire it through a pituitary or thyroid gland disorder, tumors, menopause, gout or diabetes mellitus. It could also be congenital, meaning one is born with it. In either case, it is a treatable condition.

There are several ways to treat hyperhidrosis, depending on the type and affected area. These may include high concentrations of aluminum chloride for localized hyperhidrosis, such as the underarms, but this can cause skin irritation and the desired results take time to manifest. Injections of Botox or Dysport may also be used to control the sweat glands for up to 9 months, and some anticholinergic drugs such as oxybuynin and glycopyrrolate have some efficacy, although there are side effects.

Surgical remedies for hyperhidrosis are also available but the side effects can be devastating, and recurrence of the condition is possible. A less invasive and more permanent solution for axillary hyperhidrosis (underarm sweating) at least, which is the most embarrassing of the localized hyperhidrosis types, could very well be with miraDry.

miraDry is a nonsurgical procedure using microwave technology developed by Miramar Labs for the treatment of excessive underarm sweating. The procedure makes use of a specific electromagnetic frequency which destroys the sweat glands in the armpit through thermolysis without damaging the dermal tissues surrounding it. And because sweat glands do not regenerate, the condition will not recur. There are side effects but follow up with patients 12 months  after the procedure put both patient satisfaction and treatment success rate at 90% for MiraDry. However, it only works as a treatment for axillary hyperhidrosis.


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